Standard state is pure solid Al2O3. Notes Also available in print. This C-curve, shown in Fig. It shows that the complex recirculation in the inlet compartment and rising melt flow in the outlet compartment help inclusions to be removed to the top surface. Thus, generally a C-curve is used to characterize flow systems. Directions of viscous and convective momentum. The critical size and composition of the non metallic inclusions that impair the properties of steel are not unique, but depend on the application.
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At a relatively low velocity and thus at a low Re, viscous forces dominate and their stabilizing effect makes the flow laminar. This partial information is relatively simple to obtain experimentally, can be easily interpreted, and yields information which is sufficient in many cases to allow a tecbnology accounting of the actual existing flow pattern.
Tundish technology for clean steel production. – Free Online Library
These aspects are discussed in Chapter 6. The influence of such temperature gradient on the flow will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Inclusions cause problems during the casting, rolling, and heat treating processes and sometimes result in failure of the steel during its application. Typical inclusion priduction calculated using random walk model in steady non-isothermal flow field of steel melt.
It should be noted that the critical inclusion sizes depend on individual operational conditions and requirements for each product.
In other areas in tundish, gradient collision prevails.
9789812706218 – Tundish Technology For Clean Steel Production by SAHAI
The other kind is exogenous inclusions, which form by reoxidation of deoxidized steel melt by air or by the entrained slag into the melt during the melt transfer from ladle to mold. The dimensionless tundish technology for clean steel production given by Eq. These models contain certain parameters which can be adjusted so that the predictions of the model match the experimental data.
The third zdirection is perpendicular to the x- and y-directions and thus, crosses through the plane of the paper. The lowermost fluid layer gradually transfers tundish technology for clean steel production to the upper fluid layers. Thus, it would be useful if water modeling could account for the non-isothermal aspects of the fluid flow phenomenon taking place in a continuous casting tundish.
Bookseller Completion Rate This reflects the percentage of orders the seller has received and filled. This pioneering book is the first of its kind to cover all aspects of tundish technology, ranging from fundamental aspects and theory necessary for understanding the basic concepts of tundish operations to operational aspects of the tundish.
Comparison of calculated and observed size distribution of alumina clusters in LCAK steel melt in a ton tundish. In many cases the use of flow control devices, such as dams, weirs, baffles with holes, pour pads, etc. As a result, there is a net transfer of x-direction momentum in the upward or positive y-direction. Selected pages Title Page. Non-Metallic Inclusions 57 Figure 2. As stated above, the dead volume fraction in tundishes is given by Eq. Thus, the values of turbulent viscosity may even be to times greater than the molecular viscosity of a fluid.
According to this similarity, forces acting at a corresponding time at a corresponding location in a model tundish should bear a fixed ratio with the forces in an actual tundish. The solution of Eq. Skip to content Skip to search.
Tundish technology for clean steel production (eBook, ) 
Fluid flow tundish technology for clean steel production — 5. In laminar flow, the molecular viscosity of the fluid causes exchange between the adjacent fluid layers and results in diffusive momentum transfer. The variation exists, of course, between the processes and for each process. Other links ebrary at http: Your list has reached the maximum number of items. The cluster formation can be favorably avoided when two non-deformable inclusions are replaced by either non-clustering MgO or deformable lime-magnesioaluminate, CaOMgO-Al2O3, by a proper choice of the combination of [Al], [Mg], and [Ca] is made as shown in Figs.
The use of the step tracer input may not be practical for a number of reasons, including extensive contamination of the product and the cost of tracer. For 10 years after this study, even larger tundishes in excess of 70 tons were rather commonly used for highly productive casters.
Schematic representation of the plug flow.